Over 40 million immigrants live in the United States today — more than in any other country. These communities may be different in many ways, such as the language they speak, the food they eat, and their traditions, customs and religious beliefs, but they also share similarities. For example, they all must comply with evolving U.S. immigration policies and laws and learn to navigate the American health care system. The foundations of the social work profession in the U.S. were laid in the late 19th century, due in large part to immigration trends. Social work helped to provide these vulnerable communities with the tools to overcome challenges posed by economic and social poverty.
Today, in addition to assisting multiracial and culturally diverse populations, inclusive of sexual and gender orientation and geographic location, modern social workers help people with issues involving child welfare, mental health, human rights, fair housing and substance abuse. This is why cultural competence in social work is vital to the profession.
Defining Social Work and Cultural Competence
According to the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) Code of Ethics, social work’s principal mission is “to enhance human well-being and help meet basic and complex needs of all people, with a particular focus on those who are vulnerable, oppressed and living in poverty.”
Social workers are also champions for social change that benefits not only individuals but also families and communities. As the International Federation of Social Workers explains, “Social work is a practice-based profession and an academic discipline that promotes social change and development, social cohesion and the empowerment and liberation of people.”
Cultural competence in social work entails understanding the cultural differences of people in need of social services. Social workers who demonstrate cultural competence strive to understand the cultures of the people they serve and approach them with cultural sensitivity and respect.
Embracing Cultural Competence in Social Work Practice
Social workers are likely to encounter ideas, beliefs or traditions they are unfamiliar with. Through cultural competence, they can learn to navigate those differences to help clients overcome barriers to obtaining health care and other services. Research shows that cultural barriers, such as limited English skills and a lack of understanding of the U.S. health care system, can lead to poor health outcomes among immigrant groups. By understanding people’s cultural differences, social workers can help them overcome these obstacles and encourage them to pursue the services they need.
Through the application of cultural competence in social work, social workers can also help people to assimilate to their communities, providing them with counsel and guidance on social and emotional challenges in the process. They can assist people on wide-ranging issues, such as mental and behavioral health, family separation, employer exploitation, and discrimination on the basis of race, sexual orientation or gender identification.
Striving for cultural competence does not mean social workers must face the impossible task of trying to understand every nuance of a person’s culture. Instead, they must remain open to new cultural ideas, ask questions and respond respectfully. Cultural competence is embedded into the ideals of social work practice; the NASW Code of Ethics emphasizes the “commitment to understanding and embracing culture as central to effective practice.”
Building on the Ideals of Social Work
Like social work, cultural competence is rooted in social action, justice for underrepresented communities and advocacy. Understanding the essence of cultural competence is integral to building upon the values of social work. Below are some considerations for incorporating cultural competence into social work practice.
Strive for Continual Cultural Awareness
According to the NASW Code of Ethics, “Social workers shall demonstrate an appreciation of their own cultural identities and those of others.” In other words, social workers should spend time learning about the cultures of the people they serve while being aware of the assumptions of their own cultural values and beliefs. An equally important part of this code is understanding with humility the privilege and power they hold in the service of others.
Use Language to Empower
In response to English language limitations, health care institutions offer translation services to help people navigate the complexities of the U.S. health system. While translation can bridge gaps in communication, social workers should recognize that communication must be inclusive and respectful of all people, regardless of culture, language, racial background, sexual and gender identity, and geographic location. When asking or responding to questions, being respectful, mindful and sensitive to cultural issues is a key to demonstrating cultural competence in social work.
Be Willing to Learn
Never assume that one client is like another. Each client knows more about his or her experience than anyone else. Social workers should listen carefully and embrace cultural humility in their interactions. If they acknowledge what they don’t know about a culture, rather than focusing on what they do know, they’ll find opportunities to learn more about their clients, which can lead to better outcomes.
Discover the VCU Difference
Cultural competence in social work, diversity, social justice, human rights and ethical practice are guiding principles for Virginia Commonwealth University’s Online Master of Social Work. Through the application of research and evidence-based methods, students analyze and evaluate professional practice, programs and service delivery systems.
The Online M.S.W. aims to equip students with the knowledge, skills and values crucial for effective advanced social work. It encourages them to engage diversity and difference in practice, providing them with a greater understanding of the value of cultural competence, whether they go on to work in clinical social work or social work administration and planning. In turn, graduates are prepared to effect change in various areas, from immigration services and international social work to mental health, trauma and crisis intervention.
As the demand for social services increases, so will the employment of social workers, which the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics projects will increase by 11% increase between 2018 and 2028 — faster than the average for all occupations (5%). Learn how Virginia Commonwealth University’s Online Master of Social Work can help you advance in your career and prepare you with cultural competence to make an immediate impact in the lives of people and communities.